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ndambukijohn - Freelance Writer with 6 Reviews
22 years old
from 5 by reviews

in progress
per word
Writer from Kenya


60 %
This metric depicts the ratio between the orders accepted by the client and the number of orders sent back for revision by the client. Where 100% shows complete acceptance; Low percentage shows more number of revisions.
100 %
4 orders
This metric shows the percentage of repeat orders assigned by the same set of Clients to the writer. Higher ratio indicates the higher trust & satisfaction level of clients.
66.67 %
This metric shows the orders acceptance ratio by the clients after completion.
This metric shows response of the writer, which is calculated based on the time taken by the writer:

1. To place bid on any order from the time of order publication

2. To respond to the personal assigned orders

3. To place bid on the invited Orders

4. To confirm the awarded Orders

5. To reply to the client's first message

This metric shows the percentage of orders delivered within time (starting from 04.09.2017). Higher ratio indicates more careful compliance with deadlines by writer.
Expertise 16
The writer holds expertise in these spheres. Icons with a confirmed status, assure that the writer has cleared those industry specific test and has uploaded three specific industry-based samples in their portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Real Estate
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.
Writer holds confirmed industry expertise, after passing specific industry-based test. Please find the industry-based samples in the portfolio.


Aug 2014 – now
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English Advanced

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2010 – 2013
Moi University

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Operations Management

This essay analyses the processes and strategies of Dominos Pizza including control of operations systems, design and planning. The operational strategies of the company have been evaluated by means of theoretical frameworks. While the report consider. The essay has been written after thorough research on the operational strategies of Domino Pizza as well as application of theoretical concepts. The essay shows how Dominos has managed to be a leader in the market and also analyses the strengths and weakness of the existing strategies of the company. It appreciates the efforts by the company to continue evolving in the changing market conditions by means such as incorporating new product design and being innovative to remain competitive. Upon identifying the areas that should be improved in the company`s strategy, the essay recommends changes that can be made in to ensure operational efficiency so that profit is maximized and value increased.

Operations management

Dominos is a leading pizza delivery company globally. It has a unique operation model and is a pioneer in the fast food industry. Dominos pizza has expanded from three outlets in the United States to over 9 350 outlets in seventy countries since the 1960s. The parent company has its headquarters in Michigan. Dominos` operation overseas uses the franchise model. The parent company controls the sourcing and supplying of raw materials to the franchises and ensures that the services provided and the products sold are of high quality. The Dominos Corporate Vision statement Passionate focuses on the following key areas: quality winning, outdoing the competitors, ensuring product quality, provision of quality service, establishing lasting relationships with the employees and the communities within which it operates. The corporate vision of the Dominos is to ensure that the company and its franchises work towards meeting a common goals thereby increasing its business in a virtuous cycle.

Operations Management

Overall global vision is specific in each country so it is always known. The Global Strategic objectives are in line with the vision statement of the company, the key objectives are: targeted international growth above the competitor, expansion of menu, varying price points, twenty four hour delivery model, use of company owned stores in the United States and Australia to test new innovations, invest more in training and auditing of stores for provision of consistent service and quality products and allow master franchisees to use the knowledge of the local market and cuisines that they have. Order Qualifiers and Order Winners Order qualifiers are the basic criteria the product must meet to quality for selling. Order winners are the criteria that capture the customers at the time of purchasing. Order Winners for Dominos are: core competency on delivery for customer ordering take away, inconsistency in taste, quick delivery, a wide variety of cheap foods and pricing at a premium on menu. The Dominos has a unique supply chain model. It provides flexible delivery to clients.

How the Cold War Started

The cold war was an ideological economic struggle between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which started after the end of the Second World War in 1947. It started as a result of mutual distrust among the two nations that had been allies in the Second World War. America was concerned about the communism of the Soviet Union and the tyranny of the Russian leader, Joseph Stalin`s tyranny. On the other hand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resented America because she failed to treat her as legitimate part of the international community, as well as the delayed entry of America into the Second World War, which caused the death of many Russians. Due to postwar soviet expansion in Eastern Europe, Americans feared that Russia had a plan to control the world. The USSR also resented America for her interventionist approach to international relations and arms buildup. By the end of the Second World War, American officials decided to use a strategy called containment as the best defense against the Soviet threat. Their only choice was a long term and patient containment of the expansive tendencies of Russia firmly.

How the Cold War affected the Domestic Life of Americans

The Cold War kept disoriented America`s activities as long as it lasted. The Cuban missile crisis left Americans terrified of an imminent nuclear war. There were frequent fallout shelters and bomb drills. In a bid to stop the spread of communism, America got involved in many military conflicts in Korea and Vietnam. McCarthyism and the red scare altered American politics. Although the Cold War ended, the geopolitical landscape of the world was shifting, and many Americans did not realize this. America no longer fears the Soviet Union in the same way, but the enemy has become less defined. Many countries now have nuclear weapons and are more of a threat than the Soviet Union to the United States. Global terrorism has affected America even within its boundaries.

How the Cold War ended.

During the middle 1980s, the Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union improved. On December 8, 1987, in Washington D.C, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed, which ruled out nuclear weapons. This was the first pact to call for an actual reduction in nuclear weapons. As time went by, the Eastern Bloc began to disintegrate. The government of Hungary demolished the barbed wire on its border with Austria. The Soviet Union did not respond. The restrictions were becoming less although travel was not yet completely free. On November 10, 1989, the Berlin Wall, which was one of the main symbols of the Soviet Union, came down. By the end of the year, the communist leaders the Eastern European nation had been ousted except for Bulgaria. Almost all of the Soviet republics had declared their independence by the middle of the year 1990. There was still turmoil in the Soviet Union with attempts to overthrowing Gorbachev. On December 8, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the president of the Russia, Boris Yeltsin, formed the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The formation of the moon

The moon is a product of the merging of many small moonlets after big objects, as big as Mars,collided with the earth. This idea challenges the theory of lunar formation. This new hypothesis suggests that about twenty moon- to Mars-size objects struck the earth, flinging debris from the planet into orbit. The debris formed disks that looked like the rings of Saturn around the earth. Over the years, debris in several disks created to form moonlets that migrated farther and farther from the earth due to tidal interactions. Eventually, the moonlets settled at a distance known as the Hill radius, coalescing to form one big moon.


The neutrino is an obscure particle with no electric charge and which only interacts with matter via the weak nuclear force. In recent years it has been discovered that neutrinos have a small mass, debunking the earlier assumption that it was massless. In the sun, an enormous number of neutrinos are produced in the fusion process when four hydrogen atoms transform into one helium atom. Despite the large number of neutrinos, an average of only about one of these will interact with a person's body during a lifetime. The flux of neutrinos from the sun at the surface of the earth is 6x1010 neutrinos per square centimeter and second. The neutrinos from the fusion process in the sun can pass through several light years of solid lead before being absorbed by matter. The probability for a neutrino to interact with matter increases, however, with the energy of the neutrino.

Cell Biology

Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the different structures and functions of the cell and focuses mainly on the idea of the cell as the basic unit of life. Cell biology explains the structure, organization of the organelles they contain, their physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways , life cycle, and interactions with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology.

Political science as a science of democracy

The study of politics in the United States is today something in size, content and method unique in Western intellectual history', was the argument with which Bernard Crick started his book The American Science of Politics in 1959. In regard to size, at least, the situation has not changed much. As William G. Andrews has recently noted (1982: 3), the United States, with some 15000 to 16000 political scientists, has 75-80 percent of the world's supply. The rise of American political science into a hegemonic position in the world was accomplished over a period of some 70 years, beginning about 1880. However, there are signs of crisis in American political science and its absolute hegemony has clearly vanished. The growth of political science as a discipline worldwide is producing different kinds of approaches. Although many European political scientists, for instance, still adhere to 'American' theories, they are at the same time more and more conscious of the limitations of those theories. In the United States, on the other hand, interest in the work of European scholars who are not even, strictly speaking, 'political scientists' (e.g. Jiirgen Habermas, Claus Offe, Joachim Hirsch, Louis Althusser, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Anthony Giddens, Quentin Skinner, Juliet Mitchell) has been growing, even among 'mainstream'

The Rise of American Political SCience

Those who have described John W. Burgess as the founder of American political science have also emphasized the German roots of the discipline. Many leading American social and political scientists went to study in Germany after the Civil War and Burgess was one of the most able scholars among them. After his return, he managed to sell the idea of a school of political science to the trustees of Columbia University (e.g. Crick, 1959: 21-31). The purpose was to combine the free traditions of American democracy with the standards of science and efficiency in Germany and the French model of the Ecole libre des sciences politiques to provide professional training for the Civil Service and for citizenship training (Crick, 1959: 27; Karl, 1979: 10). Two points should be made here. First, the meaning of political science at the School of Political Science at Columbia was that of the French sciences politiques. It was a collective name for courses irn history, political philosophy, economics, public law, sociology and diplomacy, and the development at Columbia must be viewed in relation to comparable developments in social sciences in the United States at that time. For instance, in 1877 Herbert Baxter Adams set up the Johns Hopkins Historical and Political Science Association, and in 1881 a department of political science was founded at the University of Michigan (e.g. Waldo, 1975: 27). Second, the importance of Columbia is to be understood in the light of it being a general center of the social sciences in the United States at the end of the 19th century. It had the most famous men in the faculty (e.g. John W. Burgess, John B. Clark, William A. Dunning, Frank Goodnow, Munroe Smith, Edwin R.A. Seligman, Franklin H. Giddings), who further enhanced their reputations through founding the Political Science Quarterly in 1886 (the first journal of political science, although its contents clearly reflected the idea of political sciences).

Political Science as an American Discourse on Politics

The preceding historical sketch attempted to put forward a view of the close relationship between political science and actual politics. Is there some special discourse on politics within American political science and peculiar to American political science? David Ricci has talked about a triangle of scholarship, democracy and politics, where expertise is crucial (Ricci, 1984). In much the same vein, Bernard Crick has discussed the linkage of science, citizenship training, American democracy and trust in an inevitable progress, a manifest destiny for American society (Crick, 1959). These ideas give a certain American flavor to political science. As both Crick and Ricci have argued, the emphasis on science is peculiar to American political science and linked to the rise of American universities, which occurred at the same time as political science began to develop (Ricci, 1984).

Primary Health Care

This report structures the PHC reforms in four groups that refl ect the convergence between the evidence on what is needed for an effective response to the health challenges of today’s world, the values of equity, solidarity and social justice that drive the PHC movement, and the growing expectations of the population in modernizing societies Q reforms that ensure that health systems contribute to health equity, social justice and the end of exclusion, primarily by moving towards universal access and social health protection – universal coverage reforms; Q reforms that reorganize health services as primary care, i.e. around people’s needs and expectations, so as to make them more socially relevant and more responsive to the changing world while producing better outcomes – service delivery reforms; Q reforms that secure healthier communities, by integrating public health actions with primary care and by pursuing healthy public policies across sectors – public policy reforms; Q reforms that replace disproportionate reliance on command and control on one hand, and laissez-faire disengagement of the state on the other, by the inclusive, participatory, negotiation-based leadership required by the complexity of contemporary health systems – leadership reforms.

Innovation in Health Care Delivery Systems

Innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations [UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2005]. UNESCO makes the distinction among the four types of innovation as follows: The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 15(1), 2010, Article 2. 5 Product innovation: introduction of a good or service that is new or significantly improved with respect to its characteristics or intended uses. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. Process innovation: implementation of a new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software. The customer does not usually pay directly for process, but the process is required to deliver a product or service and to manage the relationship with the various stakeholders. Marketing innovation: implementation of a new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. Organizational innovation: implementation of a new organizational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace organization or external relations.

High Reliability Health Care

Achieving high reliability in health care will require hospitals to undergo substantial changes that cannot take place rapidly. We have outlined a framework, with fourteen components, for the practical application of these changes to hospitals. The components are distributed in three major domains: leadership, safety culture, and robust process improvement. We described for each component four evolutionary stages of maturity on the road to high reliability. Each stage provides hospitals with specific guidance on what actions they need to take in order to advance toward high reliability. Further research and experience derived from the application of this practical framework will be required to assess its effectiveness in facilitating hospitals’ advancement toward high reliability. Finally, policymakers and stakeholders in various positions should evaluate how they can support and accelerate this transformation.

Bad pharma

Medicine is broken. And I genuinely believe that if patients and the public ever fully understand what has been done to them – what doctors, academics and regulators have permitted – they will be angry. On this, only you can judge. We like to imagine that medicine is based on evidence, and the results of fair tests. In reality, those tests are often profoundly flawed. We like to imagine that doctors are familiar with the research literature, when in reality much of it is hidden from them by drug companies. We like to imagine that doctors are well-educated, when in reality much of their education is funded by industry. We like to imagine that regulators only let effective drugs onto the market, when in reality they approve hopeless drugs, with data on side effects casually withheld from doctors and patients

Cannabis and Epilepsy

Parents of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy are searching for something to help, and some are turning to cannabis to try to reduce seizure frequency. With clinical trials of cannabidiol-based drugs under way, evidence for this treatment option may soon be forthcoming. However, concerns remain about side effects, such as sedation, interactions with other drugs, and potential disturbances of brain development.

How to identify causes of a subtherapeutic INR.

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are often involved in the management of patients with subtherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs), the cause of which is important to identify because this will affect decisions and the subsequent management of the patient.

Firm control inhibits the Child`s creative thrust

The parent whose orientation is non permissive, even when she exerts rational authority and encourages the child to make many of his own decisions, is seeking to obtain from the child conformity with parental standards. The parent who exerts authoritative control exerts vigorous efforts to shape the behavior of the child in the early years. To the extend that her policy is effective, the child may argue and test the limits, but is fundamentally satisfied with his relation to his parents and does not revolt.

New approaches to understanding risk in pregnancy

There are new approaches to understanding risk which provide a more liberal approach to care during pregnancies. The traditional methods of classifying women as low risk, moderate risk and high risk have been shown to be ineffective means of predicting complications in pregnancy or birth. Clinicians will readily admit that women with previous histories of complications may go on to have normal pregnancy and birth experiences while the apparently normal low risk woman may develop severe complications with little warning. Risk scoring systems have resulted in overloading of higher level care facilities with unnecessary referrals while women who develop complications are frequently missed for referral to tertiary level care.

Post natal care planning

Alarmingly only 29% of women felt able to stay as long as they felt they needed. Even more disturbingly, 9% felt that they were rushed out before they were ready. The length of stay has steadily decreased over the last fifteen years with the majority of women now leaving hospital within six hours of the birth. This reduction in postnatal length of stay is in the context of increased instrumental and caesarean deliveries which requires more intensive postnatal care. NICE recommends that: “Length of stay in a maternity unit should be discussed between the individual woman and her healthcare professional, taking into account the health and well-being of the woman and her baby and the level of support available following discharge”.

The Malaysian Television Environment

From the outset, Malaysian television content and programming has always been a combination of local and imported content. Television services were first introduced to Malaysia in 1963. In the first several years of its operation, imported programs, mostly from Hollywood, constituted a sizable portion of local television scheduling. In part, the importation of scheduling content was driven by the inability of the local television industry to produce enough local material to fill all of the available airtime slots. This was due to a lack of local expertise and financial resources necessary to produce quality programs. Therefore, efforts to produce domestic content were often limited and with amateurish results. With so much imported American content used to offset the scarcity of local content, it might be reasonable to conclude that the local television industry has been built upon the success of the American or Hollywood film and television industry (Karthigesu, 1994).

Urban/ Trendy Drama

During the 1990s, the East Asian television landscape was dominated by Japanese television phenomenon known as the “trendy drama” (Ang, 2007). Trendy drama was a term used to describe popular Japanese TV dramas in 1980s. This popular genre emerged to reflect the attitudes of a younger Japanese generation during the late 1980s and the early 1990s, and highlighted young Japanese lives using a modern style and a light touch (Lee, 2004). Japanese trendy dramas featured the latest in fashionable Japanese lifestyles, reflecting the inclinations of program sponsors and advertising agencies (Arita, 1997). Lee (2004) also observed that the term “trendy drama” is used in Japan to denote any youth-oriented drama and is not strictly limited to the specific type of drama that prospered in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Consequently, trendy drama is included as a subgenre of drama in line with the tastes of the younger generation. One of the central features of the urban/trendy drama is the depiction of stylish urban lifestyles abundant with extravagant outfits and accessories which reflect the prevailing consumer culture (Iwabuchi, 2004). The heavy emphasis on the consumerist aspect of Japanese culture in urban/trendy drama attracts young viewers.

Lifestyle Programming in Australia

The lion’s share of scholarship on lifestyle TV has focused on the UK and the US where reality-style make-over shows (the glamour end of the lifestyle TV spectrum) have proliferated over the past decade. However, another TV market that has a long history of lifestyle programming is Australia (Bonner, 2005). Given its regional proximity to east Asia, Australia offers a particularly useful exemplar of a western neo-liberal nation that has embraced an increasingly globalised lifestyle media and culture but that is at a distance both geographically and to a certain extent culturally from traditional centres of western media production, and is marked by its own peculiarities in terms of national lifestyle concerns. Australian audiences have over the past two decades embraced a range of shows offering lifestyle and consumer advice. Lifestyle advice segments have featured in a variety of daytime magazine shows while full-length magazine-style lifestyle shows like the long-running shows Burke’s Backyard and Better Homes and Gardens have also been successful with primetime Australian viewers. Australia, then, has had a strong pre-existing tradition of lifestyle TV and in particular home and gardenoriented shows, the latter modes of programming reflecting the centrality of homeownership to Australian culture.

Jobs, Careers and Callings

Although this tripartite set of relations to work has not been explored by psychologists, it is related to some aspects of work that have received considerable attention. One is work satisfaction, which has been found to be sensitive to many different conditions of work, including actual work tasks, work organization, pay, supervision, benefits, promotional structure, and coworkers (Locke & Latham, 1990). While we expect that work satisfaction would be highest for Callings and lowest for Jobs, we do not believe that the Job, Career, Calling distinction is defined entirely by its potential relation to job satisfaction. For example, a successful career in business or bureaucracy might be just as satisfying as a calling. Another analysis of work that is related to the present one contrasts intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to work. An ambitious recent study on this issue includes the formulation of a scale, the Work Preference Inventory, to assess intrinsic versus extrinsic work motivations. Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe (1994) analyzed the extrinsic orientation into two subfactors: compensation and outward orientation. Correspondingly, intrinsic motivation is analyzed into challenge and enjoyment. We presume that intrinsic motivation is most associated with Callings, and extrinsic motivation is most associated with Jobs, with Careers somewhat closer to extrinsic than intrinsic motivation. However, we do not see the distinction between Careers and either Jobs or Callings as neatly falling on the intrinsic–extrinsic dimension. For example, a Calling might be neither challenging nor enjoyable and a Career might be both.

Employee Attitude and Job Satisfaction

“Happy employees are productive employees.” “Happy employees are not productive employees.” We hear these conflicting statements made by HR professionals and managers in organizations. There is confusion and debate among practitioners on the topic of employee attitudes and job satisfaction— even at a time when employees are increasingly important for organizational success and competitiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide greater understanding of the research on this topic and give recommendations related to the major practitioner knowledge gaps. As indicated indirectly in a study of HR professionals (Rynes, Colbert, & Brown, 2002), as well as based on our experience, the major practitioner knowledge gaps in this area are: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Within each gap area, we provide a review of the scientific research and recommendations for practitioners related to the research findings. In the final section, additional recommendations for enhancing organizational practice in the area of employee attitudes and job satisfaction are described, along with suggestions for evaluating the implemented practices. Before beginning, we should describe what we mean by employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Employees have attitudes or viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, their careers, and their organizations. HowEMPLOYEE ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION Human Resource Management, Winter 2004, Vol. 43, No. 4, Pp. 395–407 © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20032 Lise M. Saari and Timothy A. Judge This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Suggestions for practitioners are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented practices. Future research will likely focus on greater understanding of personal characteristics, such as emotion, in defining job satisfaction and how employee attitudes influence organizational performance from the perspective of research and practice, the most focal employee attitude is job satisfaction. Thus, we often refer to employee attitudes broadly in this article, although much of our specific focus will concern job satisfaction

Defining Quality in Education

In all aspects of the school and its surrounding education community, the rights of the whole child, and all children, to survival, protection, development and participation are at the centre. This means that the focus is on learning which strengthens the capacities of children to act progressively on their own behalf through the acquisition of relevant knowledge, useful skills and appropriate attitudes; and which creates for children, and helps them create for themselves and others, places of safety, security and healthy interaction. (Bernard, 1999) What does quality mean in the context of education? Many definitions of quality in education exist, testifying to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the concept. The terms efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality have often been used synonymously (Adams, 1993). Considerable consensus exists around the basic dimensions of quality education today, however

The Need for Open Source Software in Machine Learning

Some researchers may not consider the extra effort to create a usable piece of software out of machine learning methods to be science. However, machine learning is a synthetic discipline as well as an analytic one, and certainly if it is science it is in Simon’s phrase, a “Science of the Artificial” (Simon, 1969), in which artifacts, specifically implemented algorithms, is one of the major outputs. In addition to the “pure” scientific pursuits, machine learning researchers also produce technological outputs. As such, the discipline could be considered to be mathematical engineering. In any case, as was pointed out in Section 3, the complexity of existing methods is growing such that reimplementing algorithms can easily take months. Some argue that if you want to really understand an algorithm and want to extend it—which is an important task for machine learning researchers— you have to implement it from scratch and thus it is not beneficial to have the software available. This is only partially true: one does not want to reimplement all the basic algorithms an advanced method builds on, but simply understand the high-level steps. After all, one has to build upon existing libraries, as for example the standard or math library, the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) (Lawson et al., 1979), the Linear Algebra PACKage (LAPACK) (Anderson et al., 1999) to be productive. Only few people would want to re-implement, or would be able to generate a high quality implementation of, common sorting algorithms such as qsort, basic mathematical functions such as sin, or linear algebra operations such as dgemm or dgesv.

The Unspoken Revolution in Software Engineering

find outsourcing so fascinating partly because it serves as a magnifier and revelator of just about everything in software engineering. For years, software methodologists like me have told the world about software engineering principles, sometimes with effect, sometimes with—let’s be euphemistic—less effect. Now comes a project that splits the team across three continents, and suddenly software engineering advice ceases to sound like preaching, becoming instead a matter of success or abject failure. Traditionally, we’ve told people to do requirements engineering, and they’ve often skimped on it. Now, with the implementation team half a world away, the team won’t produce anything decent without a strict process and requirements standards. We’ve exhorted programmers to care about documentation, configuration management, quality assurance, contracts, project management practices. These are no longer just good ideas, but techniques that can each, if not done right, become project killers. When the design is done on the 12th floor and the implementation on the 11th, you may think it’s all right to cut corners on good software engineering practice and renounce choosing the tools you know are really best. When the rest of the team is half a world away, forget it.

Why software is eating the world.

Over two billion people now use the broadband Internet, up from perhaps 50 million a decade ago, when I was at Netscape, the company I co-founded. In the next 10 years, I expect at least five billion people worldwide to own smartphones, giving every individual with such a phone instant access to the full power of the Internet, every moment of every day. On the back end, software programming tools and Internet-based services make it easy to launch new global software-powered start-ups in many industries—without the need to invest in new infrastructure and train new employees. In 2000, when my partner Ben Horowitz was CEO of the first cloud computing company, Loudcloud, the cost of a customer running a basic Internet application was approximately $150,000 a month. Running that same application today in Amazon's cloud costs about $1,500 a month. With lower start-up costs and a vastly expanded market for online services, the result is a global economy that for the first time will be fully digitally wired—the dream of every cyber-visionary of the early 1990s, finally delivered, a full generation later. Perhaps the single most dramatic example of this phenomenon of software eating a traditional business is the suicide of Borders and corresponding rise of Amazon. In 2001, Borders agreed to hand over its online business to Amazon under the theory that online book sales were nonstrategic and unimportant

Costs and Advantages of Business Incorporation

A legal entity in Bulgaria may be used as a suitable vehicle for different purposes, including for outsourcing business development, for real estate acquisition, for cost saving and planning, for starting of joint ventures and others. The process of setting up a company in Bulgaria is inexpensive. The flat tax rate of 10 %, the relatively low commercial and labour costs and the membership of the country in the European Union makes Bulgaria a strategic business destination.

Releasing a Car from Customs in Israel to an Entity Other Than the Importer - Who is Liable?

In the following article we will review a case in which a car was imported by personal import, but was released to a person who was not the original importer. The original importer filed a claim against all entities involved in the release process, including the Customs Authority, the customs agents, the advisers who aided the procedure, the foreign company (the seller), etc. The court accepted the claim and divided the liability among the various entities.

Criminal Tax Issues and Audits

Audits tend to occur when there is a suspected tax crime. It is important to ensure a civil examination is accomplished with cooperation, a calm presence and peaceful actions. The revenue agent provided for the investigation should not be misled or lied to. With all information disclosed properly even after the examination initiates, a criminal investigation may not be the next process.

Michael Phelps

In the spring of 2001, Phelps set the world record in the 200-meter butterfly, becoming the youngest male swimmer in history (at 15 years and 9 months) to ever set a world swimming record. He then broke his own record at the 2001 World Championships in Fukuoka, Japan, with a time of 1:54:58, earning his first international medal. Phelps continued to set new marks at the 2002 U.S. Summer Nationals in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, establishing a new world record for the 400-meter individual medley, and U.S. records in the 100-meter butterfly and the 200-meter individual medley. The following year, at the same event, he broke his own world record in the 400-meter individual medley with a time of 4:09.09. Shortly after graduating from Towson in 2003, 17-year-old Phelps set five world records, including the 200-meter individual medley at the World Championships in Barcelona, Spain, with a time of 1:56:04. Then during the U.S. trials for the 2004 Summer Olympics, he broke his own world again in the 400 meter individual medley, with a time of 4:08:41.


Snooker ] is a cue sport played on a table covered with a green cloth or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A full-size table measures 11 ft 8 1⁄2 in × 5 ft 10 in (3569 mm x 1778 mm), commonly referred to as 12 × 6 ft. The game is played using a cue and 22 snooker balls: one white cue ball, 15 red balls worth one point each, and six balls of different colours: yellow (two points), green (three), brown (four), blue (five), pink (six) and black (seven).[4] The red balls are initially placed in a triangular formation, and the other coloured balls on marked positions on the table known as "spots". Players execute shots by striking the cue ball with the cue, causing the cue ball to hit a red or coloured ball. Points are scored by sinking the red and coloured balls (knocking them into the pockets, called "potting") in the correct sequence. A player receives additional points if the opponent commits a foul. A player (or team) wins a frame (individual game) of snooker by scoring more points than the opponent(s). A player wins a match when a predetermined number of frames have been won. Snooker, generally regarded as having been invented in India by British Army officers, is popular in many of the English-speaking and Commonwealth countries,[5] with top professional players attaining multimillion-pound career earnings from the game.[6] The sport has become increasingly popular in China.[7] Touring professional players compete regularly around the world, the premier tournament being the World Snooker Championship, held annually in Sheffield, England.

Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six players each: one goaltender, and five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. A fast-paced, physical sport, ice hockey is most popular in areas of North America (particularly Canada and the northern United States) and northern and eastern Europe. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada,[1] where the game enjoys immense popularity. In North America, the National Hockey League (NHL) is the highest level for men's hockey and the most popular. The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) is the formal governing body for international ice hockey. The IIHF manages international tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking. Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 74 countries.[2] Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere. These games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875. Some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and later became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time in the Olympics in the Olympic Games of 1920. In international competitions, the national teams of six countries (The "Big Six") predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only six medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations.

Designing Safe House in an Earthquake Prone Area

ndia on account of unique geo-physical setting is highly prone to earthquakes of varying intensities. The country has faced several devastating earthquakes in the past resulting in a large number of deaths and severe property damage. During the last century, five earthquakes measuring M8 or more had struck different parts of the country; Great Assam earthquake (1897), Kangra earthquake (1905), Bihar-Nepal earthquake (1934), Andaman-Nicobar earthquake (1941) and Assam earthquake (1950) had caused untold misery to the affected community and enormous damage to infrastructure and public and private property. In the recent years damaging earthquakes had been experienced in different parts of the country (Table 1) e.g. Assam (1988) M7.2, Bihar- Nepal (1988) M6.5, Uttarkashi (1991) M6.6, Latur (1993) M6.4, Jabalpur (1997) M6.0, Chamoli (1999) M6.8 and Bhuj (2001) M6.9. Some of the earthquake events (Muzaffarabad earthquake, 2005 M7.6; Great Sumatra earthquake, 2004 M9.1), which did occur outside Indian Territory, had a very severe bearing on the nation as well. Table -1, shows region wise frequency of occurrence of earthquakes for last 110 years.

Tips for buying a home

1. Figure out how much you can afford What you can afford depends on your income, credit rating, current monthly expenses, downpayment and the interest rate. Home Economics Homebuying programs in your state 2. Know your rights Fair Housing: Equal Opportunity for All - brochure Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Borrower's rights Predatory lending 3. Shop for a loan Looking for the best mortgage: shop, compare, negotiate - brochure Let FHA help you Learn about interest only loans 4. Learn about homebuying programs Homebuying programs in your state Let FHA help you (FHA loan programs offer lower downpayments and are a good option for first-time homebuyers!) HUD's special homebuying programs Good Neighbor Next Door (formerly known as Teacher/Officer/Firefighter Next Door) Homeownership for public housing residents Indian Home Loan Guarantee Program (Section 184) 5. Shop for a home Wish list - what features do you want? Home-shopping checklist? take this list with you when comparing homes Homes for sale (including HUD homes) "Fixer-Uppers - home purchase and repair programs Manufactured (mobile) homes Shopping for a Home FAQ’s 6. Make an offer Making an offer 7. Get a home inspection For Your Protection Get a Home Inspection 8. Shop for homeowners insurance Homeowners insurance 12 ways to lower your homeowners insurance costs 9. Sign papers You're finally ready to go to "settlement" or "closing." Be sure to read everything before you sign! Getting ready to close

Major categories of real estate in North America and Europe

Attached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment (American English) or Flat (British English) – An individual unit in a multi-unit building. The boundaries of the apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Often seen in multi-story apartment buildings. Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house (a. k. a. townhouse or rowhouse) – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are owned and shared jointly. There are townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well. Cooperative (a. k. a. co-op) – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes – Potentially a full-time residence which can be (might not in practice be) movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually very temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material. The size of an apartment or house can be described in square feet or meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface definition has been used. It can be described more roughly by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room (possibly a separate kitchen). A one-bedroom apartment has a living or dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, and larger units are common. (A bedroom is a separate room intended for sleeping. It commonly contains a bed and, in newer dwelling units, a built-in closet for clothes storage.)

The Byron Bay

The reputation of this famous beach town precedes it to such an extent that first impressions may leave you wondering what all the fuss is about. The beaches are great, but there are spectacular beaches all along this coast. What makes Byron special is the singular vibe of the town itself. It's here that coastal surf culture flows into the hippie tide washing down from the hinterland, creating one great barefooted, alternative-lifestyle mash-up. The town centre is low-rise and relaxed, and the locals are dedicated to preserving its essential small-town soul. Of course Byron does get crowded and it also attracts its fair share of off-the-leash teens. Yet its unique atmosphere has a way of converting even the most cynical with its long, balmy days, endless beaches, reliable surf breaks, fine food, raucous nightlife and ambling milieu. James Cook named Cape Byron, mainland Australia’s most easterly point, after renowned navigator John Byron, grandfather of the poet Lord Byron. Later bureaucrats mistakenly planned out streets named after fellow poets such as Jonson, Burns and Shelley. Read more:

The Bermuda Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle is a mythical section of the Atlantic Ocean roughly bounded by Miami, Bermuda and Puerto Rico where dozens of ships and airplanes have disappeared. Unexplained circumstances surround some of these accidents, including one in which the pilots of a squadron of U.S. Navy bombers became disoriented while flying over the area; the planes were never found. Other boats and planes have seemingly vanished from the area in good weather without even radioing distress messages. But although myriad fanciful theories have been proposed regarding the Bermuda Triangle, none of them prove that mysterious disappearances occur more frequently there than in other well-traveled sections of the ocean. In fact, people navigate the area every day without incident.

The Brighton Beach

Brighton is one of Melbourne's most exclusive suburbs, located south of the city between Elwood and Hampton and fronting Port Phillip with its stretches of beautiful sandy beaches. Brighton is well serviced with a diverse selection of separate shopping precincts. The major centre of Brighton is situated along Church Street and offers supermarkets, a cinema at the Dendy Plaza Shopping Centre and a selection of high-end fashion and beauty establishments. Bay Street in North Brighton is a historic shopping strip where cafes and restaurants blend in with fashion and gift shops. Near the Gardenvale station is Martin Street where there's a mix of gourmet food outlets and contemporary retailers. And finally, the coastal thoroughfare of The Esplanade is dotted with a selection of hotels and a small commercial hub opposite the Middle Brighton Baths. With almost 6 kilometres of coastline within Brighton's suburban boundary, there is a diverse range of attractions and activities for all. A pedestrian and bicycle path runs along much of the foreshore, lined with palm trees, gardens and open lawns. The Middle Brighton Pier leads to a large marina facility and adjacent to that are the Middle Brighton Baths. These historic sea baths have been enjoyed by visitors since 1881 and the complex includes a cafe, restaurant, gymnasium and function facilities. Designated areas of Brighton's beaches are used by windsurfers and water skiers. The most famous spot on Brighton's coastline is the Dendy Street Beach. The colourful bathing boxes which line this stretch of coast are a well-known Melbourne icon and reflect a bygone era where swimmers and visitors to the beach had private changing and storage facilities. Good views of the bathing boxes and Melbourne's skyline can be enjoyed from the gardens at Green Point. Visitors can appreciate Brighton's beautiful gardens and historic architecture at a number of locations in the suburb. The Brighton Town Hall Precinct, on Carpenter Street, includes the impressive facade of the town hall building, surrounding lawns and rose garden. The local council offices, a library and theatre are located on the site. The Billilla Historic Homestead in Halifax Street features beautiful gardens which are open to the public. Kamesburgh is a grand Italianate mansion on North Road, set within formal English gardens and water features. Elsternwick Park, which borders the neighbouring suburb of Elwood, consists of a series of lakes surrounded by gardens, playgrounds and sporting ovals.

Origin of merchant banking

The origin of merchant banking is to be traced to Italy in late medieval times and France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Italian merchant bankers introduced into England not only the bill of exchange but also all the institutions and techniques connected with an organised money market. Merchant banking consisted initially of merchants who assisted in financing the transactions of other merchants in addition to their own trade. In France, during seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a merchant banker (le merchand Banquer) was not merely a trader but an entrepreneur par excellence. He invested his accumulated profits in all kinds of promising activities. He added banking business to his merchant activities and became a merchant banker.


As planning and industrial policy envisaged the setting up of new industries and technology, greater financial sophistication and financial services are required. According to Goldsmith, there is a well proven link between economic growth and financial technology.5 Economic development requires specialist financial skills: savings banks to marshal individual savings; finance companies for consumer lending and mortgage finance; insurance companies for life and property cover; agricultural banks for rural development; and a range of specialised government or government sponsored institutions. As new units were set up and businesses expanded, they required additional financial services which were then not provided by the banking system. Like the local banking system and the trade before, the local system of family enterprises was unsuited for raising large amounts of capital. A public equity or debt issue was the logical source of funds. Merchant banks serve a dual role within the financial sector. Through deposits or sales of securities they obtain funds for lending to their clients (SEBI forbids lending by them): a function similar to most institutions. Their other role is to act as agents in return for fee. SEBI envisages a mandatory role for merchant banks in exercising due diligence apart from issue management, in buy-backs and public offer in take over bids. Their underwriting and corporate financial services are all fee rather than fund based and their significance is not reflected in their total assets of the industry. SEBI has been pressing for merchant banks to be primarily fee based institutions.


Early investment banks in USA differed from commercial banks which accepted deposits and made commercial loans. Commercial banks were chartered exclusively to issue bank notes and make short-term business loans. On the other hand, early investment banks were partnerships and were not subject to regulations that apply to corporations. Investment banks were referred to as private banks and engaged in any business they liked and could locate their offices anywhere. While investment banks could not issue notes, they could accept deposits as well as underwrite and trade in securities. The distinction between commercial banking and investment banking is unique and confined to the United States, where legislation separates them. In countries where there is no legislated separation, banks provide investment banking services as part of their normal range of business activities. Countries where investment banking and commercial banking are combined have ‘universal banking’ system. European countries have universal banking system which accept deposits, make loans, underwrite securities, engage in brokerage activities and offer financial services.

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